Monday, May 29, 2017

GUI Blog

Many types of user interface are similar in that their main function is to make human work easier. FOr example, both CLIs and VUIs take some sort user input, and produce output. With VUIs like the Amazon Echo, the human has to just say a phrase or question without pressing any buttons or inserting any data. The VUI then "says" an output to compliment the input. However, CLIs require some sort of command through a computer mouse in order to produce output. This requires the knowledge of how to work the CLI such as code or how to operate the machine. VUIs require less work from the human. However, the output produced by VUIs are not as accurate as CLIs because there is more room for error with the input. The input into a VUI can be misinterpreted by the computer because there is not a strict code/program that the computer can operate with. For example, VUIs can have trouble with such phrases like homophones, or other words that sound alike. Both of these interfaces can be used together, like with a smart phone. They can be both VUIs (like when you use Siri) and CLIs (when the user types in info or a passcode). They both create output based off of the information the user has given, whether that is voice commands or instructions, code, or programs.

I think that in the future, there won't be nearly as much hardware or physical computers. Most data will be transmitted somehow between radio waves or other cellular methods. Similarly to how music has evolved from vinyl to cassette to CD to mp3s, I think computers will follow a similar trend. Over the course of recent history, computers have shrunk in size. There used to be the huge IBM computers that could take up a whole room. Those also needed a lot of user input in order to operate the machine. In the future, there will not be as much human direction needed. Most data will become "on demand", or available through radio waves or other cellular methods. One won't even have to unlock their phones, because everything the phone contains, games, internet, contacts, calendars, etc., will all be available by just a thought. It is almost like a new internet that does not require as much work for humans.

Friday, May 19, 2017

Net Neutrality

  1. Net neutrality is the concept that the internet and its services should treat data equally, without discrimination or favoritism.
  2. Title I was the first attempt to enforce net neutrality. Large corporations like Verizon thought Title I was too inconvenient for their services. In an attempt to be harder on Verizon's push back, the FCC established Title II which especially states that companies cannot discriminate against other companies' data and calls for stronger net neutrality. 
  3. The FCC regulates communication by phone, cables, radio, and television internationally and within the U.S.
  4. ISP's, phone companies, and cable companies want to change the rules of net neutrality because they want to maximize revenue by discriminating against their competition's services. If they can make their competition's services slower, they can charge more money to get the competition's services accessible again.  
  5. A reasonable solution is to enforce Title II laws to enforce an equal internet. It is the most ethical solution for the greater population of American citizens.
  6. The FCC, under Ajit Pai, just voted to review, and redo the laws set during the Obama administration regarding net neutrality. They are expected to loosen regulation, making what they refer to as an "open" or "free" internet. This could allow large ISPs, cable companies. and phone companies to discriminate against their competition, which is unethical and wrong. 

Monday, May 15, 2017

The Internet: Wires, Cables, and Wifi

  1. Cables that are used to communicate across oceans and continents use light and fiber optic cables. 
  2. Those cables can range from 0.75 mm to 2.00 mm.
  3. The cables that use light are placed under water and run along the sea-floor. 
  4. The two main ways to measure capacity, or bandwidth are bitrate, the number of bits per second a system can transmit, and latency, the time it takes for a bit to ravel from sender to receiver.
  5. "Safety in numbers" means that in a large group or system, the probability of an attack on an individual is far less likely than if the individual was not part of the large group or system. 
  6. Underwater cables are at risk of being damaged by construction workers, marine animals, boat anchors, or natural disasters. The cables could be cut which could damage the internet for an entire continent.

Thursday, May 11, 2017

IP Addresses and DNS

  1. Protocols are the set of rules and standards shared between devices and networks.
  2. IP addresses are assigned to every website and device to make it accessible to the ISP so that the website or device can connect to the internet around the world. IP addresses have 4 numbers. Each number has 8 bits, making each IP address 32 bits (IPV4). 
  3. IPV4 is the traditional addressing format where there are 4 numbers of 8 bits each. In 1973, when IPV4 was created, the creators did not predict how popular the internet would become. Because there are so many devices, websites, and networks, IPV4 needed to be updated to accommodate the growing size of the internet. The new addressing format, IPV6, consists of 128 bits per address, as opposed to the 32 bits of IPV4. This allows even more growth of the internet and its popularity.
  4. IP addresses are the location/destination of where information needs to be sent. That information or data being sent to the IP address is called an IP packet.
  5. The purpose of the Domain Name System (DNS) is to associate each IP address to the rest of the internet (so that the address can connect the computer to the destination). 
  6. My current IP address is

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

0.2 Algorithms

Brushing Teeth:

Sentence: Take out your tooth brush. Then, rinse the brush with warm water for five seconds. Place toothpaste on brush. Put brush in your mouth and massage teeth for 2 minutes. Every thirty seconds, spit out the liquid in your mouth. After the two minutes are done, rinse your mouth with warm water. Put your toothbrush and toothpaste away.

Pseudo Code:

  1. Take your tooth brush
  2. Rinse the brush with warm water for five seconds
  3. Place toothpaste on brush
  4. For 4 times 
    1. Massage teeth for 30 seconds
    2. Spit out liquid in mouth
  5. Rinse mouth with warm water 
  6. Put toothbrush and toothpaste away
Eating Orange:

Sentence: Dig your fingernail into the center of the orange where there is the concave indent. Peel the skin off of the orange until there is no more skin. Throw out the peel. Take apart the orange piece-by-piece 8 times. Eat orange.

Pseudo Code:

  1. Where the orange caves and indents, dig your fingernail in and begin to peel the orange.
  2. If there is still peel left
    1. Repeat step 1
  3. If there is no peel left
    1. Throw out the peel
  4. Eight times:
    1. Take apart the orange, piece-by-piece
  5. Eat Orange
Making Toast:

Sentence: Put one piece of bread into toaster. Wait 3 minutes until the toaster is done. When done toasting, take bread and put it on plate. Put peanut butter on it. Take a butter knife. Slice bread in half. Eat it.

Pseudo Code:
  1. Put one piece of bread into toaster
  2. For three minutes
    1. Wait for bread to be done toasting
  3. Put bread on plate
  4. Put peanut butter on toast
  5. Take butter knife
  6. Slice bread in half
  7. Eat toast

    Thursday, February 16, 2017

    Important Computing Devices

    The greatest computing device that has affected my life has been the toaster. I am not joking. Every morning it offers me a quick way to make breakfast. It is always there to make me food. The toaster is very consistent. The only thing I have to worry about with the toaster is if I have any bread. Most of the time, I have bread, so I won't need to worry about the toaster. I have depended on the toaster for pretty much my whole school career, and has not let me down. Because of its consistency, it is the most important computing device that I use.

    My dad said that his car was the most important device that he uses. He needs it to get to work everyday. It is the most consistent device he uses because it gets him where he needs to be, every day. The only potential negative is that the car might not work because of the weather or a mechanical issue, but that rarely happens.

    The automobile and the toaster are two very different devices. However, they share one trait, consistency. They are both reliable and provide stability day-to-day. The automobile is tens of thousands of dollars more expensive, and the toaster cooks bread, but no matter the simplicity or cost, they both serve consistency in their own ways.